Monday, January 19, 2009

TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY USED IN TOWN PLANNING

AR-309: ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING (A&TP-B)
By:
RAVINDAR KUMAR
Assistant Professor, DAP-NED

LECTURE NO: 1
TOPIC: TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY USED IN TOWN PLANNING

TOWN, CITY & URBAN


Town:
The ‘town’ name applied generally to small municipalities, larger than the village and smaller than the city or county. The town is usually operated under its own powers of local government granted by the government.

Municipality:
According to Anglo-Saxon law, public corporation created by a state and under its legislative control, typically a town, village, or other regional administrative unit. Until recently a special charter designating specific powers formed municipal corporations. Now, however, they may be formed under general statutes. Among the more important provisions in a charter and the general laws of a municipality are those that give a municipality the power to tax and the power to pass ordinances effective as law for the protection of the public health, safety, morals, and general welfare. The rate of taxation that a municipality may levy is limited in many states by the municipal charter. Among other rights that may be granted under a charter are the powers to sell bonds or notes, to award franchises, to acquire property, to construct public improvements, and to operate public utilities. Municipalities are essential units of local government.

City:
The city is defined as a large centre of population organized as a community. The word city is derived from the Latin word civitas, which denotes a community that administers its own affairs. In ancient Greece such an independent community was called a city-state; it consisted of a chief town and its immediate neighbourhood. The City is also described as a place where people live with collective sense of purpose/perception. Where internal and external processes shape environment. The city can also be defined according to scale of the settlement and types of services available in it. Some times it is directly connected to the production of the area. The city is also defined with the system of movement and relationships with the region. It has distinctive physical, social & economic characteristics, which differentiate it from the village. There was a big debate in 18th century that, what is the sense of city? And it was established that, city means, that kind of settlement which is developed as a result of industrial revolution in which the production is related to people. Before industrial revolution there were guild towns. However after industrial revolution it was termed as industrial towns/cities. Thus towns & cities can be described with respect to pre industrial & postindustrial scenario.

Local Government, the government of smaller units within nations or state, mostly at the level of the county, town, or district. Local government bodies and structures are normally creations of the central government, which delegates authority to them. The personnel of local government are customarily directly elected, because of the immediate relevance of their decisions to local life, and their powers differ from country to country. Local government usually provides administrative, fiscal, and other public services and amenities to local residents. In highly unitary centralized states, such as France or Great Britain, local government enjoys only limited powers, and in some areas these have been subject to erosion by central authority. Though some have regarded it as a basic underpinning for national democracy, local government is ill fitted to resist any encroachment on its powers by the central government.

Megalopolis (Greek megas, “great”; polis, “city”), the term was first used in the early 1960s to describe the conurbation of the north-eastern United States extending from Boston in Massachusetts to Washington, D.C. and including the major cities of New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. The term “megalopolis” was initially applied to those urban agglomerations, or super-conurbations, that developed when separate towns and cities grew together. Such megalopolitan areas are found in many highly urbanized countries and include the area between London and Manchester in the United Kingdom, the Pacific coastal district of Honshu, Japan, and the Randstad region of the Netherlands. Their growth has depended largely on the economic prosperity of the immediate surrounding region. Since the 1970s, however, the most rapid large-scale growth of cities has occurred in newly industrializing nations. Megalopolitan areas are now a major feature of the countries of Asia and Central and South America. Examples, with their projected populations for the year 2000 include Mexico City (25.6 million), São Paulo, Brazil (22.1 million), Shanghai, China (17.0 million), Jakarta, Indonesia (13.7 million), and Calcutta, India (15.7 million). It is estimated that by the year 2000, 8 of the world’s 15 largest cities will be in Asia.

Mega-cities:
The Modern mega-cities owe their origins to the globalization of international trade and their ability to attract multinational companies from anywhere in the world. Foreign investors prefer to locate in a single city where services and economic opportunities can be concentrated and encourage further growth. The emphasis on export-oriented industry means that the development of internal markets is generally weak with few opportunities for other towns to develop as industrial centers. These processes result in a snowballing of investment in the largest cities. For example, Shanghai, with about 1.5 per cent of China’s population, accounts for about 12 per cent of the nation’s industrial output.

A characteristic of modern mega-cities is that they dominate the urban settlement structure with a disproportionate number of people living in them compared to other towns. Their rapid growth has tended to outstrip local resources, creating environmental and social problems. The supply of housing, water, sanitation, power, and transport services is often seriously inadequate. Despite appearances, the supply of jobs does not always keep pace with the arrival of rural migrants from other parts of the country, leading to further problems of social segregation and economic inequality. Rapid migration (frequently coupled with a high birth rate) has lead to the development of inner-city slums or ghettos, or more often the creation of extensive, makeshift, and unofficial shanty settlements on the outskirts of the mega-cities. Although the growth of these cities looks set to continue for the foreseeable future, their vulnerability to changes in world markets is now being recognized, and controls on their growth and economic structure are starting to be considered.

New Towns planned urban settlements built either to ease the pressure on existing urban areas or to regenerate a region’s economic prosperity. New towns are largely associated with urban planning in the United Kingdom, although similar developments are to be found in other countries, for example, around Paris, France. During the Communist era, the Soviet Union built new towns in remote areas for specific economic projects, and in some countries new capital cities have been built as symbols of development, such as Brasília in Brazil and Islamabad in Pakistan.

In the United Kingdom, new towns were initially conceived in the 19th century to improve living conditions in industrial areas. A few enlightened employers provided model towns for their workers, for example, Port Sunlight near Liverpool; Bourneville, built by the Cadbury family in the Midlands; and New Lanark in Scotland.

The development of larger new towns did not begin until well into the 20th century. Two garden cities—Letch worth and Welwyn Garden City in Hertfordshire—were early examples but the major expansion of new towns in the United Kingdom occurred after the New Towns Act of 1946. Eight towns were built on the edge of London’s green belt, including Stevenage, Crawley, and Harlow, to take overspill population from the capital. Washington and Peter lee in the north-east of England, Cambrian in South Wales, and East Kilbride in Scotland were built to revive their region’s depressed economies. All these towns were designed to create a pleasant residential environment with low housing density. Homes, shops, and other facilities were clustered to create a sense of community, and to reduce the need for transport. By 1973, 28 new or expanded towns housed 1.7 million people and provided 200,000 new homes. The best known of the later new towns is the city of Milton Keynes in Buckinghamshire which occupies an area of 309 sq km (119 sq mi) and has a population of 165,000 (1997).

The general principle behind new towns is that they should be socially balanced and as independent as possible from existing urban areas. However, with the passing of time, these towns have mainly attracted younger skilled people. Opportunities for work have not kept pace with housing and commuting to and from the new towns are now at a high level. The planned residential mixing of different socio-economic groups has also faced problems. In the future, new towns are likely to be built in countries where economic growth and urbanization are occurring rapidly. Elsewhere, the preferred approach is now the careful redevelopment of existing centers or, like Pound bury in Dorset, England, the building of small new settlements modelled on the lines of traditional villages.

County:
The County is a unit of local government in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, and other nations influenced by the Anglo-Saxon tradition of government. In England a county was originally a tribal settlement, or even a whole kingdom, known to the Saxons as a shire—a term still preserved, as in the county of Hampshire. With the formation of the United Kingdom, the English county form was adopted in Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. Today counties remain Great Britain's chief governmental division for administrative and related purposes; though in some fields their competence has been reduced as a result of governmental centralizing policies during the 1980s. In the United States they are the largest organized unit in almost all states. In Canada counties are generally less widespread and important than in England. In Australia counties are generally referred to as shires.

Guild Towns:
Guilds are the communities living together for the practice of their mode of productions and professions. For example in medieval times there were production units at the ground floor and residential units were at upper floors where the communities lived and worked at the same place.

Satellite Town:
A town conceived as an extension of existing city, Mega city or metropolis which provides the employment and residential needs of people and served locally can be termed as satellite town. In addition it does not provide any commuting facility to the parent city such as Landhi Korangi and Steel Town and Gulshan-e-Maymar are the few examples of satellite town.

Garden City:
It is a conceptual outcome of the environmental conditions of city. In which there should be residential areas, which are linked to the city but located away from the city. For example in London there are suburbs, which are, located around one hour drive away from the city of London. In Karachi Maymar Complex was designed on such concept.

CITY/URBAN ELEMENTS

City Centre:
The city centre can be defined as a place where all the major commercial, administrative and cultural activities of city take place. Where all the major commercial and public buildings exist or which should be the hub of all these activities and spaces where popular interaction between people is evident can be termed as city centre. Mostly the city centers were the places where major cultural activity occurs or where the origin of city is located from where the city started. For example: Kharadar Methadar, Old Town area or currently Empress Market or Time Square in New York or Eiffel Tower at Paris etc.

CBD:
CBD stands for Central Business District. CBD is a place where all kinds of shadow transactions take place. In case of Karachi I.I.Chundrigar Road can be termed as CBD because of stock exchange and offices of money market or foresee or brokerage forms, etc.

OBD:
OBD stands for Outer Business District. When the functioning of cities decentralized and CBD’s activities fails to fulfill the needs of city’s shadow transactions and city centre. For example in London city of west minister is a CBD which could not fulfilled the needs of city so OBDs developed in other parts of London. Simultaneously in Manhattan where, Wall Street exists in known as CBD but because it is located in an island and there were also other islands in the surroundings so they developed their own OBD. Well take the case of Karachi. I.I.Chundrigar Road is known as CBD but now there is different brokerage houses developed in Clifton where the forex business is going on. If this trend continued the Clifton might develop as OBD.

Sub Centre:
When the city centre cannot grow further and constrained to a particular limit sub-centers develops in other parts of the city. When the physical accessibility to city centre become difficult and city centre becomes saturated the sub-centre emerges as a repercussion. For example Saddar Empress Market area can be termed as city centre, which reached to its zenith/peak. As a result Tariq Road emerged, as a sub centre, Liaquatabad market, Hydery market, Babar Market at Landhi Korangi are all examples of sub-centers.
Neighbourhood:
The neighbourhood is a residential unit, which possesses all the characteristics of livelihood that is dependent on an economic centre.

Neighbourhood Centre:
It is a commercial centre or market place for the settlement or a neighbourhood. For example one can observe in their neighbourhood that row of shops develops as the settlement or neighbourhood grows.

Fringe:
It is the outer boundary of the city where the activities of city diminished. In Karachi its example is Hawks bay, Pipri, Korangi extension. The city fringes of existing cities, mega cities, and metropolis are changing continuously. There are also administrative limits of city. Such as Greater Karachi Metropolitan region, Karachi Divisions, Karachi Metropolitan/Urbanized area (16000 hectors).

URBAN SOCIOLOGY

Family:
Unit of society with particular context, surviving on each other. Unit of people living in the one devilling unit (devilling unit is a house where a single family lives. Nuclear family, joint family).

Migration:
It reflects movement of people from one place to another for any reason (income, economic, security, natural calamities, etc.).

Public Utilities, business operations that provide essential services to the public—for example, electricity, gas, water supply, sewage disposal, and telecommunications. Utilities are an essential part of the infrastructure of modern developed countries, which require highly integrated networks of distribution or coordination for many essential services, such as the national grid for electricity suppliers. Many operate under favorable cost regimes whereby the unit cost of service to a customer falls as the network grows. However, the existence of these networks often gives public utilities a natural monopoly of provision of service within their area.

URBAN TRANSPORTATION

Street: It is a path where the pedestrian and vehicular traffic flows.

Road, public way, usually maintained by governmental authority, for the passage of vehicles, people, or animals. Roads in cities or towns are also called streets, lanes, avenues, or boulevards. Roads that connect populated areas to one another are often called motorways or highways.
Highway:
Highway is a major road where pedestrian movement is discovered and vehicular traffic is allowed. These are connecting different cities or industries.

Motorway:
Motorway is same as highway where notarized vehicles are allowed to flow with a certain speed limit.

Transport, conveyance of people or property from one place to another. Modern commercial transport includes all the means and facilities used in the movement of people or property, and all services involved in the receipt, delivery, and handling of such property. The commercial transport of people is classified as passenger service and that of property as freight service. Transport is one of the largest industries in the world.

Public Transport, conveyance of large numbers of passengers, whether in the town or country, by vehicle, usually in return for payment of a fixed fare.

Mass Transit: It is an urban transportation mode which addresses the needs of major urban transit/movement of people especially the movement of people from suburbs to city centre and vice versa. Example: Karachi Mass Transit/Circular Railway or Urban Railway System of Bombay.

URBAN LANDSCAPE

Park: It is an open space with natural and man-made landscape.
Street Park:
Basically the street parks are developed from the classical planning of Greeks and Romans. The street park can be termed as open spaces located at the corners of an intersection or at the end of street.

Locality Park:
It is designed and developed at the level of a neighbourhood. For example Aziz Bhatti Park in Gulshan or Jahangir Park in Saddar.

Urban Park:
The Park developed at the city level both by scale and nature, having majority of as Urban Park i.e. Hyde Park and Kingston Park in London. In New York there is central park which combines the Manhattan with other spaces. The Urban Park provides a relief a breathing space for the people living in the city.

National Parks:
It is common term used in geography. It is a park provided at the regional level. It is a large landscape unit at a regional scale with a focus on conservation of the national landscape, floors, and fauna natural and wild life. For example, Kheerthar National Park in Sindh which is more than 23000 hectors of land.

National Parks and Nature Reserves, areas selected by governments or private organizations for special protection against damage or degradation. They are chosen for their outstanding natural beauty, as areas of scientific interest, or as forming part of a country's cultural heritage, and often also to provide facilities for public recreation.

Hard Landscape: The artificial/manmade landscape can be termed as hard landscape.

Soft Landscape: The natural landscape can be termed as soft landscape.

Townscape:
It is a system of appropriate livable settlements. There are both residential and working spaces existing in each city with exclusive right of use. Simultaneously there are some open spaces of common use which are collectively used and managed with no exclusive right of space use. The system of management, maintenance and utilization of all these spaces in an appropriate way can be termed as townscape. A townscape always faces the pressure of population increase and utilization of its spaces.

URBAN CONSERVATION

Urban Conservation:
It means protection of built environment. The term conservation cannot be understood in isolation until and unless one must define a parameter for it. For example, an architectural conservation, area conservations or urban conservation.

Conservation, means sustainable use of natural resources, such as soils, water, plants, animals, and minerals. In economic terms, the natural resources of any area constitute its basic capital, and wasteful use of those resources constitutes an economic loss. From the aesthetic and moral viewpoint, conservation also includes the maintenance of national parks, wilderness areas, historic sites, and wildlife. In certain cases, conservation may imply the protection of a natural environment from any human economic activity.

Preservation:
It means provision of safe guard from any kind of harm. The term preservation gives a definite meaning of a process.

Restoration:
It means rebuilding towards originality. There is again controversy in this term. It is also associated to entire field of studies. For example what kind of restoration is required? There are some 1st grade monuments where one cannot change any thing to modify it. Where as in 2nd Grade monuments/buildings one can do some modifications.

Redevelopment:
It means re-bring to its visible state. It is again another controversial term. In redevelopment one has to recapture the sprit of space, in addition maintain the morphology of the area and its physical density.

Rehabilitation:
It means reestablish to former state. In rehabilitation an object/space should be established in such a way that it gets a formal status. Therefore at first it needs restoration through which the object will get its former sate. This can also be termed as empirical stage of an object.

Renovation:
It means renew or to make it as if new. In the context of conservation the term renovation leads us towards renewing the function and no change in spatial quality is allowed. This term directly related to buildings. Where as in urban context the term urban renewal will be used.

Rejuvenation:
It means to make young with respect to specific period. In rejuvenation we revive the object to same layout and function as it was at the time of its youth.

Revitalization:
It means modification. It is very specific term which reflects the changes in the object with respect to some specific needs of that object. The revitalization also takes place to reuse that object in current context to suit the existing conditions, needs and demands.

Restitution:
Basically the restitution means to restore. The term restitution is mainly related to the development of different options for revival in present time conditions. In original terms it is an option development exercise.

Animation:
It means enliven or make it alive. This term leads us to a situation in which at first it is assumed that an object or place has lost its functions, characteristics and spirit. So a new function and sprit is introduced in it/or in computer graphics terms make it a live scene.

Adaptive Reuse:
It means make the object suitable for reuse. This term is mainly applicable to redundant things or objects which are in dilapidated condition or became obsolete and they needs to be sued again for some historical or emotional reasons. Where no drastic changes are required because it would be very vital when used the objects practically.

Urban Renewal, the rehabilitation of decaying urban areas, usually funded by government finance and directed according to town planning policies. Urban renewal has been criticized because of the often-accompanying process of gentrification, whereby the stock of affordable housing is considerably shrunk, and essential facilities such as inexpensive food shops may disappear. Urban renewal may, therefore, result in a displacement of the urban poor.

URBAN ECONOMICS

Urban Economics: There are two types of economics Capitalist Economy and Socialist Economy.

Socialist Economy: In socialist economy state works for people and people work for state.

Capitalist Economy:
In capitalist economy private entrepreneurs works for people to mobilize the whole economy i.e. chemical, textile industry etc. In urban economics three things are important i.e. capital, goods and labour. The free movement of these three elements denotes free market economy.

Employment: Effort to earn livelihood.

Production, in economics, manufacture and processing of goods or merchandise, including their design, treatment at various stages, and finance contributed by banks. As the means by which wealth is created by human labour, it is regarded by some as the fundamental economic process. Various economic laws, price data, and available resources are among the aspects of production that must be considered by both private and governmental producers. The inputs or resources used in production are known as the factors of production.

Factors of Production, inputs used in the production process. These are conventionally defined as land, labour, and capital (investment in machinery, for example), but enterprise or entrepreneurship is often listed as a fourth factor of production. The relative availability of the various factors of production in a country (its “factor endowment”) is an important influence on investment and international trade. In order to be successful, a business needs to achieve as good a mix as possible of the factors of production. The desirable mix will change from time to time and will depend on such things as the need to expand, the availability of skilled labour or experienced and enterprising managers, and new technology, as well as, of course, the market price for the different factors of production.

Money, any medium of exchange that is widely accepted in payment for goods and services and in settlement of debts. Money also serves as a standard of value for measuring the relative economic worth of different goods and services. The number of units of money required to buy a commodity is the price of the commodity. The monetary unit chosen as a measure of value need not, however, be used widely, or even at all, as a medium of exchange. During the colonial period in North America, for example, Spanish currency was an important medium of exchange, while the British pound sterling served as the standard of value.

Prices, in economics are the value of things measured in terms of what the buyers in a market will give in exchange for them.

Prices are usually measured in money—indeed, money's effectiveness as a medium for expressing prices is the main reason for its existence—but in barter systems prices could be expressed in other commodities with their own value, so that prices of all commodities were mutually determining without the intervening medium of money. Prices are the fundamental mechanism of adjustment of supply and demand, for any commodity in a free market economy should eventually find the level at which production and consumption are balanced: this equilibrium price will be the compromise reached between what the producers can afford to charge and what the consumers are prepared to pay. Prices will therefore decide what and how much is produced, how it is produced, and who can buy it. Questions of price are therefore crucial to economics, particularly microeconomics, and the subject of intensive study.

Market:
Theoretically the market can be defined as a place where transactions take place. These transactions can be both physical and shadow. However, practically the market is generally known as a place where sell, purchase and storage take place.

Market Forces, underlying influences on the operation of the economy. They boil down to supply and demand, which determine price and the allocation of resources. In a pure free market economy, market forces are unrestrained. However, in all countries, governments to a greater or lesser degree restrict the operation of the free market and therefore distort (even negate) the effect of market forces through economic policy. In the former communist countries the system of central planning left no room for market forces to operate. In other parts of the world governments have often, for different reasons, sought to override market forces through such actions as the granting of subsidies to firms or services that (it is judged) could not survive in a free market, or the imposition of tariffs or quotas on imports. Increasingly, however, countries are moving towards a position where market forces are allowed to operate more and more freely. A market revolution is taking place in the former communist nations, but changes have also taken place all over the world—from South America to Southern Africa.

An open market in which market forces are allowed to operate freely is at the heart of the single market programme of the European Union. However, the principle has never been applied to farming in the EU, which is governed by the Common Agricultural Policy under which prices for agricultural produce are guaranteed, thus encouraging overproduction. Market forces vary from market to market and derive their power from the individuals who make up a market and on whose lives they have enormous influence. They are determined by such factors as wealth, consumer taste, regulation, and taxation. Stringent safety requirements may push up the cost (and therefore the price) of a potentially desirable product beyond that which a sufficient number of consumers can afford (or are willing) to pay. Tax differentials on alcoholic drinks have encouraged thousands of Britons to make day trips to France in order to stock up with beer and wine.

Supply and Demand, in economics, basic factors determining prices. According to the theory, or law, of supply and demand, the market prices of commodities and services are determined by the relationship of supply to demand. Theoretically, when supply exceeds demand, sellers must lower prices to stimulate sales; conversely, when demand exceeds supply, buyers bid prices up as they compete to buy goods. The terms supply and demand do not mean the amount of goods and services actually sold and bought; in any sale the amount sold is equal to the amount bought, and such supply and demand, therefore, always equalizes. In economic theory, supply is the amount available for sale or the amount that sellers are willing to sell at a specified price, and demand, sometimes called effective demand, is the amount purchasers are willing to buy at a specified price.

The theory of supply and demand takes into consideration the influence on prices of such factors as an increase or decrease in the cost of production, but regards that influence as an indirect one, because it affects prices only by causing a change in supply, demand, or both. Other factors indirectly affecting prices include changes in consumption habits (for example, a shift from natural silk to artificial silk fabrics) and the restrictive practices of monopolies, trusts, and cartels. In the view of many economists, the multiplicity of such indirect factors is so great that the terms supply and demand are inclusive categories of economic forces affecting prices, rather than precise, primary causal factors.

The price-determining mechanism of supply and demand is operative only in economic systems in which competition is largely unfettered. Recourse, in recent times, to governmental regulation of the economy has tended to restrict the scope of the operation of the supply-and-demand mechanism. It was greatly restricted in many countries by the temporary governmental price regulations and rationing during World War II. Under Communist systems the planned economy is controlled by the state, the supply-and-demand mechanism being overridden. However, in recent years there has been a remarkable trend towards the reintroduction of market forces in many former planned economies.

Commodity, the economic term with two meanings: in economic theory it is a tangible good or service that is the result of a production process; in general terms it is a primary product (or raw material) that is grown, such as coffee, tea, rubber, or cotton, or an extracted mineral resource, such as gold, copper, or tin; it may also be something that is (in effect) reared, such as wool. Here we concern ourselves only with the second meaning.

Countries that are rich in commodities or natural resources have the advantage over others that are not so well endowed in that their economies are (up to a point) less dependent on the ingenuity and effort of their inhabitants. They are, however, dependent on the market for commodities, which determines price. Experience has shown that commodity prices are more vulnerable to dramatic price shifts than are manufactured goods. In the past two decades many commodities, including oil, tin, copper, and coffee, have been subject to huge price fluctuations that were often not foreseen or prepared for by both producers and consumers. Some of these price increases were to a large extent the result of natural conditions that have resulted in crop failures or crop surpluses. Other price shifts have resulted from one or other of a combination of politics and changing markets.

Because, on balance, consumers and producers have tended to be in favour of more stable commodity prices, attempts have been made to achieve commodity price stability through agreements that have involved export and/or production quotas; intervention in the market by buying a commodity when the price is falling (which helps slow or reverse the fall) and storing it until the price has recovered; and long-term contracts between suppliers and purchasers. None of these have worked consistently well, and there have been some serious failures, notably the dramatic collapse of the tin agreement in the mid-1980s. Increasingly, international organizations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) have been using other ways to help those developing countries whose commodity exports are crucial sources of foreign exchange earnings.

There are a number of commodity markets in the world, most of which concern themselves primarily with rights of ownership rather than physical possession. A “spot” price for a commodity is the current price. A “future” price is one agreed for transfer of ownership of a specified quantity of the commodity on a specific date in the future (perhaps a month, perhaps a year). The futures market allows buyers to know in advance what they are going to have to pay for a commodity and protects them from unforeseen fluctations in the spot price. It also offers speculators opportunities to profit from price fluctuations they have foreseen (or have been prepared to gamble on) but which the market has not. Suppose you judge that the spot price will be 5 per cent higher in 30 days' time than the current (30-day) future price for a commodity, you will (if your judgment is correct) make a 5 per cent profit (less commission costs) by buying at the future price and selling the commodity on the spot market in 30 days' time. However, if the spot price has fallen below the future price you paid, you will have incurred a loss.

Goods:
Goods are the commodities, which are produced through a process. These are products which has some determined value. Goods are all tangible tings which human being requires/desires.

Services:
Services are the counter part of goods. All the work done for others known as services. The services cannot be quantified in a materialistic way.

Resources:
Resources are the input required to deliver goods and services. The resources can be tangible and intangible such as Natural resources, Capital Resources, and Technological Resources.

Poverty, is the economic condition in which people lack sufficient income to obtain certain minimal levels of health services, food, housing, clothing, and education generally recognized as necessary to ensure an adequate standard of living. What is considered adequate, however, depends on the average standard of living in a particular society.

Relative poverty is that experienced by those whose income falls considerably below the average for their particular society. Absolute poverty is that experienced by those who do not have enough food to remain healthy. However, estimating poverty on an income basis may not measure essential elements that also contribute to a healthy life. People without access to education or health services should be considered poor even if they have adequate food.

Scarcity:
It means fewer resources. It is the limitations of the amount of resources available to individuals and societies to produce goods and services.

Free Good:
Goods which are available in such abundance that they are able to full fill any quantum of choice i.e. air, sun light, wind, snow. Land cannot be a free good.

Economic Goods:
Opposite to free goods. Economic goods are those which generate revenue. The economic goods emerge from scarcity. They are produced to fulfill certain proportion of scarcity i.e. 15 million households in Pakistan and each requires T.V., clothes.

Difference b/w free goods & economic goods:
We always have access to free goods through natural behaviour without any hindrance where as in economic goods we have one practical hindrance i.e. we pay the price. So it leads to cost.

Cost:
Cost is the value of opportunity in making choices. What is value of opportunity? It is the capacity to fulfill choices and cost is the function of it i.e. you can make highways or you can make missiles. Therefore cost again depends on the availability of resources.

Absolute Cost:
It is the input required for production such as, capital, human resource, and technology. In theory it works. But in practice it would not. Because one cannot measure the human factor and its cost. Therefore non-human mechanism of production is the absolute cost.

Opportunity Cost:
It is related to both individuals and societies. It is the value placed on opportunities and choosing to scarce goods i.e. time has certain value it is a scarce good utilize your fee hours and get benefit. If you would not get benefit means you loose and pay the opportunity cost. It’s the choice available to you. For example national parks most people use it most not, they pay the price for non-utilization.

Accounting Cost:
It is a calculated cost. It is the direct definite cost reflected in monitory terms. All costs are convertible to accounting cost. It can be applied on both tangible and non-tangible costs.

Margin:
Margin can be understood as a profit line. It is the difference b/w cost and benefit in any given situation. In terms of net benefit it is profit.

Marginal Analysis:
In any mechanism of production how the margining is carried out. In Marginal Analysis it is calculated that, how much maximization and minimizing of cost and benefit is possible. Marginal Analysis suggested that, how the optimum benefits can be obtained while doing an activity.

Prices:
These are opportunity cost/market value of a product. It does not give certain value but give idea how to maximize opportunity.

Market: It is the Hypothetical arrangement b/w buyer and seller. How market operates? It operates through barter (exchange of goods or commodities).

Money: It is generally accepted medium of exchange or transaction.

Currency: Currency is the representation of money.

Inflation:
It is the sustained degradation of money against the increase of prices and reduction in purchasing power of money i.e. in Pakistan inflation rate increased up to 26 percent from last 12 percent due to devaluation of money in Pakistan.

Microeconomics:
Individual/Personal/Small enterprises. Behaviour of individual units regarding goods production i.e. Panwala, Dal chawal wala.

Macroeconomics:
It is the study of economy as a whole scale is flexible policy making of govt. or international agencies affect the whole region.
Economic Growth:
Higher production of a society or sustained increase in productive capacity means economic growth i.e. more goods, more services and human resources.

Economic System:
The economic system means to determine what, how and for whom the goods and services to be produced. There are three major economic systems i.e. (i) Traditional economic system (ii) Command society economic system; and (iii) Market economic system.

Traditional Economic System:
It is a tribal/jarga, system where the customs, habits and rituals are the determinant forces of the economic system. This system is unaccountable.

Command Society Economic System:
In command society a central authority decides about the production of goods and services. The example of command society is Monarchy, Dictatorship and Communists where a party leads and makes decisions about every thing.

Market Society:
People on their own interest decide about the economy system. In this system a balance and accountability is evident for consumers and producers.

URBAN HOUSING

Shelter:
It is one of the three basic necessities for human survival with minimum requirement (what each human need? i.e. food, clothes and shelter)

Housing, is a permanent shelter for human habitation. Because shelter is necessary to everyone, the problem of providing adequate housing has long been a concern, not only of individuals but of governments as well. Thus, the history of housing is inseparable from the social, economic, and political development of humankind.
History of Housing:
From the beginning of civilization, attention has been paid to the form, placement, and provision of human habitation. The earliest building codes, specifying structural integrity in housing construction, are found in the Code of the 18th-century BC Babylonian King Hammurabi. Town planning activities during the Greek and Roman empires centered almost exclusively on the appropriate placement of urban housing from the perspectives of defense and water supply. These same concerns continued throughout the middle Ages. In 13th-century Europe, the city became a centre of trade, and its walls provided a safe haven from nomadic warriors and looters. People could find shelter for themselves and their flocks, herds, and harvests while the open country was being overrun by enemies of superior force. Demand for urban housing increased. For centuries this demand was filled by unplanned additions to, and subdivisions of, existing structures. Where climate permitted, squatting (occupying without title or payment of rent) became commonplace, but provided only temporary shelter.

By the 19th century, with the Industrial Revolution, people were moving to cities in unprecedented numbers. Workers lived in sheds, railway yards, and factory cellars, typically without sanitation facilities or water supply.

In the post-industrial society of the 20th century, housing in developing nations and poor parts of developed countries continues to be of insufficient quality and does not meet the demand of some parts of the population. Vacant, abandoned inner-city housing exists alongside structures that are usable but overcrowded and buildings that are structurally reclaimable but are functionally obsolete.

At present, there is both a demand for housing and a supply of reusable structures that are going unclaimed. This situation is a good example of the complex role housing plays in society. Its primary function was to serve the need for shelter, security, and privacy, but housing must now offer other advantages:
(1) location, including proximity to the workplace, shopping, businesses, schools, and other homes;
(2) environment, for example, the quality of the neighbourhood, including public safety and aesthetics; and
(3) investment potential, or the degree to which home ownership may affect capital accumulation.

Housing Policy:
Housing programmes in the United States and in Western European nations share many similarities. All these countries have initiated public housing, urban renewal, and new-town programmes. However, public intervention in Europe began sooner and has been more extensive than in the United States. Great Britain, for example, embarked on public-housing development in the late 19th century. Labourers' dwelling acts, authorizing local governments to construct public housing, were enacted as early as the mid-19th century, more than 75 years before comparable US housing legislation was passed. Urban-renewal demolition activities were empowered during the same period, almost a century before equivalent American activity. Massive public-housing programmes were started after each of the world wars. By the 1970s, approximately one-third of Britain's housing was publicly subsidized, compared with only 1 to 2 per cent in the United States. Great Britain has also constructed several new community developments that are in contrast to the fledgling and largely unsuccessful new-town ventures in the United States.

Housing policies in other Western European nations are similar to those in Britain. For instance, extensive provision and regulation of housing exists, taking the form of subsidies for slum demolition and rental housing assistance. Germany, France, the Netherlands, and other nations provide low- or no-interest housing loans. The development of new-towns is also encouraged or subsidized; indeed, more than ten have been built on the outskirts of Paris.

The problems of housing in Canada, both public and private, have been treated with considerable imagination and effectiveness. Federal funds for housing have been directed almost entirely at people with lower incomes. The government provides assistance to the provinces and municipalities and to individuals, to be used for neighbourhood improvement, the purchase of homes, the rehabilitation of residential housing, and the development of new communities. At the same time, the private sector has channelled a high volume of financial support into the mortgage market.

Housing in the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and in Eastern European nations was almost exclusively characterized by government regulations and provisions. These countries pioneered the production and installation of massive prefabricated housing units in urban areas. Housing units, usually of pre-cast concrete, were manufactured in factories and then transported to the housing site, where they were assembled into large, multifamily complexes. The former USSR was also a pioneer in developing new towns, which were frequently located around massive industrial or power-generating facilities. One example was the town of Bratsk, near the Bratsk hydroelectric plant in Siberia.

Housing in economically developing countries is typically inferior in quality and space to that found in economically developed nations. Government efforts to upgrade housing conditions are evolving slowly, however. In the 1950s, slum demolition was effected on a large scale in many cities, such as Manila in the Philippines and Baghdad in Iraq. In the 1960s, new-town development, such as Brasília in Brazil, became commonplace. These strategies often proved ineffective; demolition was not usually accompanied by replacement housing, and the new towns sometimes proved to be islands in a sea of slums. In the 1970s, some developing nations turned to self-help housing. Families were given plots of land and building materials to construct or improve their own shelter. This housing approach is commonly referred to as a “sites-and-services” programme; so far it has been implemented on a large scale in India and many South American countries. Numerous organizations assist housing development and the upgrading of housing standards. These include the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the United Nations Commission on Human Settlements, and the US Agency for International Development.

Future Trends Housing is a critical component in the social and economic fabric of all nations. No country is yet satisfied that adequate housing has been delivered to the various economic groups that make up its populace. Thus, most nations, in one form or another, continue to claim a housing problem.

As the 1990s began, the West generally was facing a critical shortage of affordable housing for low- and middle-income wage earners, as well as for the poor, and the numbers of homeless people were rising, especially in the cities. Higher home prices plus a reduction in low-income housing led to greater demand for rented accommodation, which resulted in higher rents and fewer available rental units. In addition, different types of housing are required to meet the needs of people with disabilities, as well as of the elderly and of people living alone. A variety of solutions have been suggested, including rehabilitating public housing, organizing public-private partnerships, issuing housing vouchers, granting public funds to non-profit-making developers, amending zoning restrictions, promoting tenant management of public housing, improving mortgage-guarantee programmes, and encouraging companies to provide housing assistance programmes for their employees.

Each country also faces its own specific problems. Great Britain and much of Western Europe must grapple with suburbanization and the decentralization of cities, while in the former USSR and in Eastern Europe, demand for more private dwelling space has increased. In developing nations, raw housing demand is still largely unmet, with the result that many of the population find themselves forced to live in shanty towns, settlements in which the houses are very poorly equipped to deal with basic human needs. Shanty towns have very little in the way of infrastructure; they are usually without water, sanitation, electricity, or roads. The houses are usually built by the residents themselves, made from whatever materials have come to hand, and constructed often on land where no building rights exist, or on land illegally squatted.

Household: Nos. of kitchen is the determinant of household in Pakistan.

Public Sector:
The activities and initiatives of state decide on account of people. State is ‘Mumliquat-e-Khudadad’.

Private Sector:
Individual or group of individuals working within the framework of state for free enterprise or for earning surplus.

Private Sector, part of the economy that is not owned or controlled by the state. It includes personal and corporate private enterprise, including what are known as public companies (those in which there is a market for members of the public to buy shares). After World War II, in many countries governments organized a shift from the private sector to the public sector. The countries that fell under the influence of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics adopted centrally planned economies with maximum state control. In the United Kingdom, the Labour government elected in 1945 firmly believed in the principle of common ownership, and that it was better for the public sector to run certain “essential” industries and services. Its extensive programme of nationalization included taking control of the Bank of England, the coal industry, most hospitals, transport, and the gas, electricity, and iron and steel industries. Since the 1980s, as a result of the policy of privatization championed by Margaret Thatcher, there has been a big shift in economic activity away from the public sector in the United Kingdom as many large state-owned companies have been sold to the private sector. Many other countries have also been following the trend by reducing the public sector in favour of the private sector, including, most notably, the former Communist countries of Eastern Europe and what was the Soviet Union, where there always was a small private sector even if it was not officially acknowledged. Even in current Communist states such as China and Vietnam, there has been a remarkable shift in emphasis towards private enterprise. Many African countries, which followed socialist economic principles, are now too encouraging growth of a private sector.

Cooperative Sector:
One basic difference between private and cooperative sector is, ‘to get the basic need of people or some specific group identify need and gather around it.

Informal Sector:
Develops around basic needs within the framework of Government rules and regulations. Where government fails to provide goods and services the informal sector operates parallel, i.e. water supply, tanker mafia, housing (squatter) lands grabber etc.

Labor Housing/Colonies:
It reflects in the historic development of Industrialization in 1880s. When mass influx of people come in the city with no facility available to them. So they occupied the available plots and no place left for housing expansion. At that time revolution took place by labour and they had 3 demands. Food, clothes and shelter. So; on that basis the industrialists accepted their demands and provided them labour colonies.

Social Housing:
This concept developed in the west and their main application is also seen in the west. In social housing, the houses are provided by government to destitute, disables worriers, widows and old people they may be groups or individuals who can not survived on their own, (then the concept of welfare state emerged, in UK and France in 1880s) and state become responsible for their housing needs. If we look into the housing policy document of Pakistan and other developing countries this concept is very much alive but not actually.

Rental Housing:
This concept mainly developed in France where state established the housing stock so that earning could be done and shelter should be provided to shelter less. It is commonly used term refers to provision of housing to people with a contract between owner and tenant. It is different from normal kind of housing. In developing countries only few countries has this facility but in developed western countries this concept is very popular.

Housing Finance:
What do we mean by finance? It is the system through which the housing process is monetarily supported. Housing is the process with number of steps. The financial aspect of housing is a first step. The laid is the first commodity. So, the land and finance is the both equitable entities. In Sindh we find that state cannot participate in housing finance because state owns a large amount of land and it got the value and it has certain kind of financial aspect added to it i.e. KDA started a housing project the first thing is set of terms and conditions with respect to financial aspect that how much money will be rotated/revolved. There are three stages of housing finance:
(i) Acquisition of land,
(ii) House building (it takes time because financial institutions given the loans i.e. HBFC) and
(iii) Infrastructure, it is distributed in components with different institutions that provide these facilities i.e. water, gas, electricity, telephone, etc. This is the very set system of housing finance. There are also alternatives for housing finance i.e. from open market lands, materials, credit.

Housing Construction:
It is the over all process through which the settlement develops and sustains. The actors involved in it are land grabbers, developers, interest groups and state.

Subdivision:
It has various meanings but division of land is appropriate for housing and landuse. These are the dimensions assigned by developers for land use pattern of the settlements.

Lease:
It is the contractual mode of ownership tied up with time frame i.e. in Karachi it is 99 years. In Punjab it is one year ‘Yaksala Pata’.

Freehold Land:
It is the most common pattern of land ownership. It is the land owned by one person and then inherited.

Trusts hold Land:
It is the ownership acquired by the Government of Pakistan. After independence government established an Evacuee (eviction) property trust. They make charter that who ever left the land in India can make claims and get the trust property here in Pakistan.

Demarcation:
It has two angles (point of views) Settlement itself and at city level process of demarcation. At the plot or unit of house, marked on site according to the reference taken on site. It is the process of verifying housing unit boundaries. All the right of ownership develops on the basis of demarcation.

Land Acquisition:
Land is the basic commodity in the process of development of any settlement. Now, the government can acquire the land, private owners acquire the land, informal owners acquire the land. A public sector example in this regard is acquisition of Landhi Korangi Area, which was a rural land. During 1958 Greater Karachi resettlement plan govt. gave notice to the owners to come and sell their land.

Land Appropriation:
The available land is the first appropriation mechanism used by illegal subdivides.

Eviction:
It is the process through which illegal or undesired settlements are bulldozed or removed from the (scene) area.

Type of Houses (property unit): In housing census we measure the housing in these three categories, katcha, semi pucca and pucca.
(i) Katcha house can be considered with no roof, no foundation walls and no permanent structure.
(ii) Semi pucca house can be considered with no permanent foundation where as walls and roof structures are permanent.
(iii) Pucca house can be considered with permanent foundation, walls and roof.

Housing Policy:
It is a Federal Document made by EUAD i.e. Environment and Urban Affairs Division according to National Housing Policy. It describes the housing stock, demand and supply level at national scale.

Land Grabbing: It is the illegal occupation of land under the umbrella of various institutions.

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