Assistant Professor, DAP-NED
LECTURE NO: 1
TOPIC: TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY USED IN TOWN PLANNING
TOWN, CITY & URBAN
Local Government, the government of smaller units within nations or state, mostly at the level of the county, town, or district. Local government bodies and structures are normally creations of the central government, which delegates authority to them. The personnel of local government are customarily directly elected, because of the immediate relevance of their decisions to local life, and their powers differ from country to country. Local government usually provides administrative, fiscal, and other public services and amenities to local residents. In highly unitary centralized states, such as France or Great Britain, local government enjoys only limited powers, and in some areas these have been subject to erosion by central authority. Though some have regarded it as a basic underpinning for national democracy, local government is ill fitted to resist any encroachment on its powers by the central government.
Megalopolis (Greek megas, “great”; polis, “city”), the term was first used in the early 1960s to describe the conurbation of the north-eastern United States extending from Boston in Massachusetts to Washington, D.C. and including the major cities of New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. The term “megalopolis” was initially applied to those urban agglomerations, or super-conurbations, that developed when separate towns and cities grew together. Such megalopolitan areas are found in many highly urbanized countries and include the area between London and Manchester in the United Kingdom, the Pacific coastal district of Honshu, Japan, and the Randstad region of the Netherlands. Their growth has depended largely on the economic prosperity of the immediate surrounding region. Since the 1970s, however, the most rapid large-scale growth of cities has occurred in newly industrializing nations. Megalopolitan areas are now a major feature of the countries of Asia and Central and South America. Examples, with their projected populations for the year 2000 include Mexico City (25.6 million), São Paulo, Brazil (22.1 million), Shanghai, China (17.0 million), Jakarta, Indonesia (13.7 million), and Calcutta, India (15.7 million). It is estimated that by the year 2000, 8 of the world’s 15 largest cities will be in Asia.
A characteristic of modern mega-cities is that they dominate the urban settlement structure with a disproportionate number of people living in them compared to other towns. Their rapid growth has tended to outstrip local resources, creating environmental and social problems. The supply of housing, water, sanitation, power, and transport services is often seriously inadequate. Despite appearances, the supply of jobs does not always keep pace with the arrival of rural migrants from other parts of the country, leading to further problems of social segregation and economic inequality. Rapid migration (frequently coupled with a high birth rate) has lead to the development of inner-city slums or ghettos, or more often the creation of extensive, makeshift, and unofficial shanty settlements on the outskirts of the mega-cities. Although the growth of these cities looks set to continue for the foreseeable future, their vulnerability to changes in world markets is now being recognized, and controls on their growth and economic structure are starting to be considered.
New Towns planned urban settlements built either to ease the pressure on existing urban areas or to regenerate a region’s economic prosperity. New towns are largely associated with urban planning in the United Kingdom, although similar developments are to be found in other countries, for example, around Paris, France. During the Communist era, the Soviet Union built new towns in remote areas for specific economic projects, and in some countries new capital cities have been built as symbols of development, such as Brasília in Brazil and Islamabad in Pakistan.
In the United Kingdom, new towns were initially conceived in the 19th century to improve living conditions in industrial areas. A few enlightened employers provided model towns for their workers, for example, Port Sunlight near Liverpool; Bourneville, built by the Cadbury family in the Midlands; and New Lanark in Scotland.
The development of larger new towns did not begin until well into the 20th century. Two garden cities—Letch worth and Welwyn Garden City in Hertfordshire—were early examples but the major expansion of new towns in the United Kingdom occurred after the New Towns Act of 1946. Eight towns were built on the edge of London’s green belt, including Stevenage, Crawley, and Harlow, to take overspill population from the capital. Washington and Peter lee in the north-east of England, Cambrian in South Wales, and East Kilbride in Scotland were built to revive their region’s depressed economies. All these towns were designed to create a pleasant residential environment with low housing density. Homes, shops, and other facilities were clustered to create a sense of community, and to reduce the need for transport. By 1973, 28 new or expanded towns housed 1.7 million people and provided 200,000 new homes. The best known of the later new towns is the city of Milton Keynes in Buckinghamshire which occupies an area of 309 sq km (119 sq mi) and has a population of 165,000 (1997).
The general principle behind new towns is that they should be socially balanced and as independent as possible from existing urban areas. However, with the passing of time, these towns have mainly attracted younger skilled people. Opportunities for work have not kept pace with housing and commuting to and from the new towns are now at a high level. The planned residential mixing of different socio-economic groups has also faced problems. In the future, new towns are likely to be built in countries where economic growth and urbanization are occurring rapidly. Elsewhere, the preferred approach is now the careful redevelopment of existing centers or, like Pound bury in Dorset, England, the building of small new settlements modelled on the lines of traditional villages.
Public Utilities, business operations that provide essential services to the public—for example, electricity, gas, water supply, sewage disposal, and telecommunications. Utilities are an essential part of the infrastructure of modern developed countries, which require highly integrated networks of distribution or coordination for many essential services, such as the national grid for electricity suppliers. Many operate under favorable cost regimes whereby the unit cost of service to a customer falls as the network grows. However, the existence of these networks often gives public utilities a natural monopoly of provision of service within their area.
Street: It is a path where the pedestrian and vehicular traffic flows.
Road, public way, usually maintained by governmental authority, for the passage of vehicles, people, or animals. Roads in cities or towns are also called streets, lanes, avenues, or boulevards. Roads that connect populated areas to one another are often called motorways or highways.
Transport, conveyance of people or property from one place to another. Modern commercial transport includes all the means and facilities used in the movement of people or property, and all services involved in the receipt, delivery, and handling of such property. The commercial transport of people is classified as passenger service and that of property as freight service. Transport is one of the largest industries in the world.
Public Transport, conveyance of large numbers of passengers, whether in the town or country, by vehicle, usually in return for payment of a fixed fare.
Mass Transit: It is an urban transportation mode which addresses the needs of major urban transit/movement of people especially the movement of people from suburbs to city centre and vice versa. Example: Karachi Mass Transit/Circular Railway or Urban Railway System of Bombay.
Park: It is an open space with natural and man-made landscape.
National Parks and Nature Reserves, areas selected by governments or private organizations for special protection against damage or degradation. They are chosen for their outstanding natural beauty, as areas of scientific interest, or as forming part of a country's cultural heritage, and often also to provide facilities for public recreation.
Hard Landscape: The artificial/manmade landscape can be termed as hard landscape.
Soft Landscape: The natural landscape can be termed as soft landscape.
Urban Conservation: It means protection of built environment. The term conservation cannot be understood in isolation until and unless one must define a parameter for it. For example, an architectural conservation, area conservations or urban conservation.
Conservation, means sustainable use of natural resources, such as soils, water, plants, animals, and minerals. In economic terms, the natural resources of any area constitute its basic capital, and wasteful use of those resources constitutes an economic loss. From the aesthetic and moral viewpoint, conservation also includes the maintenance of national parks, wilderness areas, historic sites, and wildlife. In certain cases, conservation may imply the protection of a natural environment from any human economic activity.
Urban Renewal, the rehabilitation of decaying urban areas, usually funded by government finance and directed according to town planning policies. Urban renewal has been criticized because of the often-accompanying process of gentrification, whereby the stock of affordable housing is considerably shrunk, and essential facilities such as inexpensive food shops may disappear. Urban renewal may, therefore, result in a displacement of the urban poor.
Urban Economics: There are two types of economics Capitalist Economy and Socialist Economy.
Socialist Economy: In socialist economy state works for people and people work for state.
Employment: Effort to earn livelihood.
Production, in economics, manufacture and processing of goods or merchandise, including their design, treatment at various stages, and finance contributed by banks. As the means by which wealth is created by human labour, it is regarded by some as the fundamental economic process. Various economic laws, price data, and available resources are among the aspects of production that must be considered by both private and governmental producers. The inputs or resources used in production are known as the factors of production.
Factors of Production, inputs used in the production process. These are conventionally defined as land, labour, and capital (investment in machinery, for example), but enterprise or entrepreneurship is often listed as a fourth factor of production. The relative availability of the various factors of production in a country (its “factor endowment”) is an important influence on investment and international trade. In order to be successful, a business needs to achieve as good a mix as possible of the factors of production. The desirable mix will change from time to time and will depend on such things as the need to expand, the availability of skilled labour or experienced and enterprising managers, and new technology, as well as, of course, the market price for the different factors of production.
Money, any medium of exchange that is widely accepted in payment for goods and services and in settlement of debts. Money also serves as a standard of value for measuring the relative economic worth of different goods and services. The number of units of money required to buy a commodity is the price of the commodity. The monetary unit chosen as a measure of value need not, however, be used widely, or even at all, as a medium of exchange. During the colonial period in North America, for example, Spanish currency was an important medium of exchange, while the British pound sterling served as the standard of value.
Prices, in economics are the value of things measured in terms of what the buyers in a market will give in exchange for them.
Prices are usually measured in money—indeed, money's effectiveness as a medium for expressing prices is the main reason for its existence—but in barter systems prices could be expressed in other commodities with their own value, so that prices of all commodities were mutually determining without the intervening medium of money. Prices are the fundamental mechanism of adjustment of supply and demand, for any commodity in a free market economy should eventually find the level at which production and consumption are balanced: this equilibrium price will be the compromise reached between what the producers can afford to charge and what the consumers are prepared to pay. Prices will therefore decide what and how much is produced, how it is produced, and who can buy it. Questions of price are therefore crucial to economics, particularly microeconomics, and the subject of intensive study.
Market Forces, underlying influences on the operation of the economy. They boil down to supply and demand, which determine price and the allocation of resources. In a pure free market economy, market forces are unrestrained. However, in all countries, governments to a greater or lesser degree restrict the operation of the free market and therefore distort (even negate) the effect of market forces through economic policy. In the former communist countries the system of central planning left no room for market forces to operate. In other parts of the world governments have often, for different reasons, sought to override market forces through such actions as the granting of subsidies to firms or services that (it is judged) could not survive in a free market, or the imposition of tariffs or quotas on imports. Increasingly, however, countries are moving towards a position where market forces are allowed to operate more and more freely. A market revolution is taking place in the former communist nations, but changes have also taken place all over the world—from South America to Southern Africa.
An open market in which market forces are allowed to operate freely is at the heart of the single market programme of the European Union. However, the principle has never been applied to farming in the EU, which is governed by the Common Agricultural Policy under which prices for agricultural produce are guaranteed, thus encouraging overproduction. Market forces vary from market to market and derive their power from the individuals who make up a market and on whose lives they have enormous influence. They are determined by such factors as wealth, consumer taste, regulation, and taxation. Stringent safety requirements may push up the cost (and therefore the price) of a potentially desirable product beyond that which a sufficient number of consumers can afford (or are willing) to pay. Tax differentials on alcoholic drinks have encouraged thousands of Britons to make day trips to France in order to stock up with beer and wine.
Supply and Demand, in economics, basic factors determining prices. According to the theory, or law, of supply and demand, the market prices of commodities and services are determined by the relationship of supply to demand. Theoretically, when supply exceeds demand, sellers must lower prices to stimulate sales; conversely, when demand exceeds supply, buyers bid prices up as they compete to buy goods. The terms supply and demand do not mean the amount of goods and services actually sold and bought; in any sale the amount sold is equal to the amount bought, and such supply and demand, therefore, always equalizes. In economic theory, supply is the amount available for sale or the amount that sellers are willing to sell at a specified price, and demand, sometimes called effective demand, is the amount purchasers are willing to buy at a specified price.
The theory of supply and demand takes into consideration the influence on prices of such factors as an increase or decrease in the cost of production, but regards that influence as an indirect one, because it affects prices only by causing a change in supply, demand, or both. Other factors indirectly affecting prices include changes in consumption habits (for example, a shift from natural silk to artificial silk fabrics) and the restrictive practices of monopolies, trusts, and cartels. In the view of many economists, the multiplicity of such indirect factors is so great that the terms supply and demand are inclusive categories of economic forces affecting prices, rather than precise, primary causal factors.
The price-determining mechanism of supply and demand is operative only in economic systems in which competition is largely unfettered. Recourse, in recent times, to governmental regulation of the economy has tended to restrict the scope of the operation of the supply-and-demand mechanism. It was greatly restricted in many countries by the temporary governmental price regulations and rationing during World War II. Under Communist systems the planned economy is controlled by the state, the supply-and-demand mechanism being overridden. However, in recent years there has been a remarkable trend towards the reintroduction of market forces in many former planned economies.
Commodity, the economic term with two meanings: in economic theory it is a tangible good or service that is the result of a production process; in general terms it is a primary product (or raw material) that is grown, such as coffee, tea, rubber, or cotton, or an extracted mineral resource, such as gold, copper, or tin; it may also be something that is (in effect) reared, such as wool. Here we concern ourselves only with the second meaning.
Countries that are rich in commodities or natural resources have the advantage over others that are not so well endowed in that their economies are (up to a point) less dependent on the ingenuity and effort of their inhabitants. They are, however, dependent on the market for commodities, which determines price. Experience has shown that commodity prices are more vulnerable to dramatic price shifts than are manufactured goods. In the past two decades many commodities, including oil, tin, copper, and coffee, have been subject to huge price fluctuations that were often not foreseen or prepared for by both producers and consumers. Some of these price increases were to a large extent the result of natural conditions that have resulted in crop failures or crop surpluses. Other price shifts have resulted from one or other of a combination of politics and changing markets.
Because, on balance, consumers and producers have tended to be in favour of more stable commodity prices, attempts have been made to achieve commodity price stability through agreements that have involved export and/or production quotas; intervention in the market by buying a commodity when the price is falling (which helps slow or reverse the fall) and storing it until the price has recovered; and long-term contracts between suppliers and purchasers. None of these have worked consistently well, and there have been some serious failures, notably the dramatic collapse of the tin agreement in the mid-1980s. Increasingly, international organizations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) have been using other ways to help those developing countries whose commodity exports are crucial sources of foreign exchange earnings.
There are a number of commodity markets in the world, most of which concern themselves primarily with rights of ownership rather than physical possession. A “spot” price for a commodity is the current price. A “future” price is one agreed for transfer of ownership of a specified quantity of the commodity on a specific date in the future (perhaps a month, perhaps a year). The futures market allows buyers to know in advance what they are going to have to pay for a commodity and protects them from unforeseen fluctations in the spot price. It also offers speculators opportunities to profit from price fluctuations they have foreseen (or have been prepared to gamble on) but which the market has not. Suppose you judge that the spot price will be 5 per cent higher in 30 days' time than the current (30-day) future price for a commodity, you will (if your judgment is correct) make a 5 per cent profit (less commission costs) by buying at the future price and selling the commodity on the spot market in 30 days' time. However, if the spot price has fallen below the future price you paid, you will have incurred a loss.
Poverty, is the economic condition in which people lack sufficient income to obtain certain minimal levels of health services, food, housing, clothing, and education generally recognized as necessary to ensure an adequate standard of living. What is considered adequate, however, depends on the average standard of living in a particular society.
Relative poverty is that experienced by those whose income falls considerably below the average for their particular society. Absolute poverty is that experienced by those who do not have enough food to remain healthy. However, estimating poverty on an income basis may not measure essential elements that also contribute to a healthy life. People without access to education or health services should be considered poor even if they have adequate food.
Difference b/w free goods & economic goods:
Market: It is the Hypothetical arrangement b/w buyer and seller. How market operates? It operates through barter (exchange of goods or commodities).
Money: It is generally accepted medium of exchange or transaction.
Currency: Currency is the representation of money.
Traditional Economic System:
Command Society Economic System:
Housing, is a permanent shelter for human habitation. Because shelter is necessary to everyone, the problem of providing adequate housing has long been a concern, not only of individuals but of governments as well. Thus, the history of housing is inseparable from the social, economic, and political development of humankind.
By the 19th century, with the Industrial Revolution, people were moving to cities in unprecedented numbers. Workers lived in sheds, railway yards, and factory cellars, typically without sanitation facilities or water supply.
In the post-industrial society of the 20th century, housing in developing nations and poor parts of developed countries continues to be of insufficient quality and does not meet the demand of some parts of the population. Vacant, abandoned inner-city housing exists alongside structures that are usable but overcrowded and buildings that are structurally reclaimable but are functionally obsolete.
At present, there is both a demand for housing and a supply of reusable structures that are going unclaimed. This situation is a good example of the complex role housing plays in society. Its primary function was to serve the need for shelter, security, and privacy, but housing must now offer other advantages:
Housing policies in other Western European nations are similar to those in Britain. For instance, extensive provision and regulation of housing exists, taking the form of subsidies for slum demolition and rental housing assistance. Germany, France, the Netherlands, and other nations provide low- or no-interest housing loans. The development of new-towns is also encouraged or subsidized; indeed, more than ten have been built on the outskirts of Paris.
The problems of housing in Canada, both public and private, have been treated with considerable imagination and effectiveness. Federal funds for housing have been directed almost entirely at people with lower incomes. The government provides assistance to the provinces and municipalities and to individuals, to be used for neighbourhood improvement, the purchase of homes, the rehabilitation of residential housing, and the development of new communities. At the same time, the private sector has channelled a high volume of financial support into the mortgage market.
Housing in the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and in Eastern European nations was almost exclusively characterized by government regulations and provisions. These countries pioneered the production and installation of massive prefabricated housing units in urban areas. Housing units, usually of pre-cast concrete, were manufactured in factories and then transported to the housing site, where they were assembled into large, multifamily complexes. The former USSR was also a pioneer in developing new towns, which were frequently located around massive industrial or power-generating facilities. One example was the town of Bratsk, near the Bratsk hydroelectric plant in Siberia.
Housing in economically developing countries is typically inferior in quality and space to that found in economically developed nations. Government efforts to upgrade housing conditions are evolving slowly, however. In the 1950s, slum demolition was effected on a large scale in many cities, such as Manila in the Philippines and Baghdad in Iraq. In the 1960s, new-town development, such as Brasília in Brazil, became commonplace. These strategies often proved ineffective; demolition was not usually accompanied by replacement housing, and the new towns sometimes proved to be islands in a sea of slums. In the 1970s, some developing nations turned to self-help housing. Families were given plots of land and building materials to construct or improve their own shelter. This housing approach is commonly referred to as a “sites-and-services” programme; so far it has been implemented on a large scale in India and many South American countries. Numerous organizations assist housing development and the upgrading of housing standards. These include the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the United Nations Commission on Human Settlements, and the US Agency for International Development.
Future Trends Housing is a critical component in the social and economic fabric of all nations. No country is yet satisfied that adequate housing has been delivered to the various economic groups that make up its populace. Thus, most nations, in one form or another, continue to claim a housing problem.
As the 1990s began, the West generally was facing a critical shortage of affordable housing for low- and middle-income wage earners, as well as for the poor, and the numbers of homeless people were rising, especially in the cities. Higher home prices plus a reduction in low-income housing led to greater demand for rented accommodation, which resulted in higher rents and fewer available rental units. In addition, different types of housing are required to meet the needs of people with disabilities, as well as of the elderly and of people living alone. A variety of solutions have been suggested, including rehabilitating public housing, organizing public-private partnerships, issuing housing vouchers, granting public funds to non-profit-making developers, amending zoning restrictions, promoting tenant management of public housing, improving mortgage-guarantee programmes, and encouraging companies to provide housing assistance programmes for their employees.
Each country also faces its own specific problems. Great Britain and much of Western Europe must grapple with suburbanization and the decentralization of cities, while in the former USSR and in Eastern Europe, demand for more private dwelling space has increased. In developing nations, raw housing demand is still largely unmet, with the result that many of the population find themselves forced to live in shanty towns, settlements in which the houses are very poorly equipped to deal with basic human needs. Shanty towns have very little in the way of infrastructure; they are usually without water, sanitation, electricity, or roads. The houses are usually built by the residents themselves, made from whatever materials have come to hand, and constructed often on land where no building rights exist, or on land illegally squatted.
Household: Nos. of kitchen is the determinant of household in Pakistan.
Private Sector, part of the economy that is not owned or controlled by the state. It includes personal and corporate private enterprise, including what are known as public companies (those in which there is a market for members of the public to buy shares). After World War II, in many countries governments organized a shift from the private sector to the public sector. The countries that fell under the influence of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics adopted centrally planned economies with maximum state control. In the United Kingdom, the Labour government elected in 1945 firmly believed in the principle of common ownership, and that it was better for the public sector to run certain “essential” industries and services. Its extensive programme of nationalization included taking control of the Bank of England, the coal industry, most hospitals, transport, and the gas, electricity, and iron and steel industries. Since the 1980s, as a result of the policy of privatization championed by Margaret Thatcher, there has been a big shift in economic activity away from the public sector in the United Kingdom as many large state-owned companies have been sold to the private sector. Many other countries have also been following the trend by reducing the public sector in favour of the private sector, including, most notably, the former Communist countries of Eastern Europe and what was the Soviet Union, where there always was a small private sector even if it was not officially acknowledged. Even in current Communist states such as China and Vietnam, there has been a remarkable shift in emphasis towards private enterprise. Many African countries, which followed socialist economic principles, are now too encouraging growth of a private sector.
Trusts hold Land:
Type of Houses (property unit): In housing census we measure the housing in these three categories, katcha, semi pucca and pucca.
(i) Katcha house can be considered with no roof, no foundation walls and no permanent structure.
(ii) Semi pucca house can be considered with no permanent foundation where as walls and roof structures are permanent.
(iii) Pucca house can be considered with permanent foundation, walls and roof.
Land Grabbing: It is the illegal occupation of land under the umbrella of various institutions.