Department of Architecture and Planning
NED University of Engineering and Technology
TOPIC: SUBURBAN DEVELOPMENT
Suburbs in this sense are not separated by open countryside to the city centre. In large cities such as London, suburbs include formerly separate towns and villages which have been gradually absorbed during city's growth and expansion. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalized as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas of Australia their equivalent are called localities. In Australia, the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density suburbs with close proximity to the city center, and the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are usually characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
Urban development in Canada has largely paralleled development in the United States. After World War II, large bedroom communities of single-family homes and shopping centers sprouted on the outskirts of Canadian cities. However, Canada has far fewer suburban municipalities than the U.S. Many large cities, such as Winnipeg, Calgary, Edmonton, and Ottawa, extend all the way to, and even include the countryside. However, the fact that literal boundaries of suburbs are not present in Canada does not eliminate suburbs, per se. The boundaries of Canadian cities are under the jurisdiction of the provinces, which have imposed city-suburb mergers. Vancouver and Montreal regions still have suburban municipalities, although their suburban areas are generally grouped into fewer cities than is typical in the United States. British Columbia created a "metropolitan" government for the Vancouver area in 1965, but the urbanized area has since grown well beyond it.
Today, Toronto has some of the largest suburban municipalities in North America, and the two largest suburbs in Canada are in this metro area. Mississauga (668,549) and Brampton (433,806) together claim 1.1 million inhabitants, and would be the third largest city in Canada if merged. Many Toronto suburbs have significantly improved on the suburban philosophy, adding a downtown to many suburban centers, notably Mississauga, Brampton, Vaughan and Markham. In 1998 the governmental structure was reorganized to include many of these formerly independent suburbs into the Greater Toronto Area. Vancouver has several large suburbs, with more than three quarters of a million people living in Surrey (the third largest suburb in Canada), Richmond, and Burnaby. Montreal has its two largest suburbs, Laval and Longueuil, as well as a suburban group of smaller municipalities neighbouring Montreal known as the West Island.
Many post-World War II American suburbs are characterized by eight major aspects:
i. Lower densities than central cities, dominated by single-family homes on small plots of land, surrounded at close quarters by very similar dwellings.
ii. Zoning patterns that separate residential and commercial development, as well as different intensities and densities of development. Daily needs are not within walking distance of most homes.
iii. Subdivisions carved from previously rural land into multiple-home developments built by a single real estate company. These subdivisions are often segregated by minute differences in home value, creating entire communities where family incomes and demographics are almost completely homogeneous, although suburban developments have become and are becoming more diverse.
iv. Shopping malls and strip malls behind large parking lots instead of a classic downtown shopping district.
v. A road network designed to conform to a hierarchy, including culs-de-sac, leading to larger residential streets, in turn leading to large collector roads, in place of the grid pattern common to most central cities and pre-World War II suburbs.
vi. A greater percentage of one-story administrative buildings than in urban areas.
vii. A greater percentage of Caucasians and less percentage of citizens of other ethnic groups than in urban areas. Black suburbanization grew between 1970 and 1980 by 2.6% as a result of central city neighborhoods expanding into older neighborhoods vacated by whites.,  , 
viii. Compared to rural areas, suburbs usually have greater density, higher standards of living, more complex road systems, and less wildlife
In the suburban system, most trips from one component to another component require that cars enter a collector road, no matter how short or long the distance is. This is compounded by the hierarchy of streets, where entire neighborhoods and subdivisions are dependent on one or two collector roads. Because all traffic is forced onto these roads, they are often heavy with traffic all day. If a traffic accident occurs on a collector road, or if road construction inhibits the flow, then the entire road system may be rendered useless until the blockage is cleared. The traditional "grown" grid, in turn, allows for a larger number of choices and alternate routes. Suburban systems of the sprawl type are also quite inefficient for cyclists or pedestrians, as the direct route is usually not available for them either. This encourages car trips even for distances as low as several hundreds of meters (which may have become up to several kilometres due to the road network). Improved sprawl systems, though retaining the car detours, possess cycle paths and footpath connecting across the arms of the sprawl system, allowing a more direct route while still keeping the cars out of the residential and side streets.
Finally it is necessary to know that there are many more expressions of the term suburbs through which the concept of suburbs and suburban development can be further elaborated i.e. Boomburbs; Commuter town; Developed Environments such as Rural, Exurban, and Urban; Edge city; Ethnoburb; Exurb; Faubourg; Inner suburbs; Microdistrict; Penurbia; Streetcar suburb; Suburbia bashing; Urban rural fringe; Urban sprawl; White Flight etc. In addition a List of largest suburbs by population may be explored online or London commuter belt (Stockbroker belt) and other Settlement types such as Hamlet, Village, Town, City, and Megalopolis can be studied from the world wide web.
 Land Development Calculations 2001 Walter Martin Hosack. "single-family detached housing" = "suburb houses" p133 From http://books.google.com/books?id=uULJlcYkJ1oC
 "Housing Unit Characteristics by Type of Housing Unit, 2005" Energy Information Association From http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/recs2005/hc2005_tables/hc1housingunit/pdf/tablehc2.1.pdf
 The Fractured Metropolis: Improving the New City, Restoring the Old City, Reshaping the Region by Jonathan Barnett From http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=2t2P4t8fkJMC
 ISBN 0-943875-73-0 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/0943875730
 Garden Cities of To-Morrow From http://www.library.cornell.edu/Reps/DOCS/howard.htm
 Comeback Cities: A Blueprint for Urban Neighborhood Revival By Paul S. Grogan, Tony Proscio. ISBN 0813339529 Published 2002 Page 142 "Perhaps suburbanization was a 'natural' phenomenon—rising incomes allowing formerly huddled masses in city neighborhoods to breathe free on green lawn and leafy culs-de-sac. But, we will never know how natural it was, because of the massive federal subsidy that eased and accelerated it, in the form of tax, transportation and housing policies." From http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0813339529 and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/0813339529
 Barlow, Andrew L. (2003). Between fear and hope: globalization and race in the United States. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-1619-9 From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/0742516199 ; http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Andrew_L._Barlow&action=edit&redlink=1 and http://books.google.com/books?id=2gJhgr0BrooC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0#PPA39,M1
 . Noguera, Pedro (2003). City schools and the American dream: reclaiming the promise of public education. New York: Teachers College Press. ISBN 0-8077-4381-X. From http://books.google.com/books?id=bfuFosKIPeEC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0#PPA24,M1 http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pedro_Noguera&action=edit&redlink=1 ; and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/080774381X
 Naylor, Larry L. (1999). Problems and issues of diversity in the United States. Westport, Conn.: Bergin & Garvey. ISBN 0-89789-615-7 From http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Larry_L._Naylor&action=edit&redlink=1 and http://books.google.com/books?id=y7-EyumYyCUC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0#PPA82,M1
 Modern suburbia not just in America anymore From http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2008-04-15-suburbia_N.htm
 Why adding lanes makes traffic worse From http://bicycleuniverse.info/transpo/roadbuilding-futility.html