Saturday, September 26, 2009

REVIEW QUESTIONS

AR-309: ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING (B)
By
RAVINDAR KUMAR
Assistant Professor
Department of Architecture and Planning
NED University of Engineering and Technology
Karachi

LECTURE NO. 30
TOPIC: REVIEW QUESTIONS
LECTURE NO. 1: INTRODUCTION TO TOWN PLANNING: PURPOSE AND SCOPE

1. What is town planning? Explain its purpose and scope.
2. Write down the significance of the subject town planning.
3. What is the role of a civil engineer and a town planner in a city?



LECTURE NO. 2: DEFINITIONS OF TOWN PLANNING

1. Define and explain the following:
i. Town
ii. Municipality
iii. City
iv. Local Government
v. Megalopolis
vi. Mega-cities
vii. New Towns
viii. Guild Towns
ix. Satellite Town
x. Garden City

2. Define and explain the following:
i. City Centre
ii. Central Business District
iii. Outer Business District
iv. Sub Centre
v. Neighbourhood
vi. Neighbourhood Centre
vii. Fringe
viii. Family
ix. Migration
x. Public Utilities

3. Define and explain the following:
i. Street
ii. Road
iii. Highway
iv. Motorway
v. Transport
vi. Public Transport
vii. Mass Transit
viii. Park and Street Park
ix. Locality Park and Urban Park
x. National Parks and Nature Reserves

4. Define and explain the following:
i. Hard Landscape and Soft Landscape
ii. Townscape
iii. Conservation
iv. Preservation
v. Restoration
vi. Redevelopment
vii. Rehabilitation
viii. Renovation
ix. Rejuvenation
x. Revitalization

5. Define and explain the following:
i. Restitution
ii. Animation
iii. Adaptive Reuse
iv. Urban Renewal
v. Urban Economics
vi. Socialist Economy and Capitalist Economy
vii. Production and Factors of Production
viii. Money, Prices and Market Forces
ix. Supply and Demand
x. Commodity, Goods and Services

6. Define and explain the following:
i. Microeconomics and Macroeconomics
ii. Economic Systems
iii. House, Houses and Housing
iv. Family and Household
v. Public Sector
vi. Private Sector
vii. Cooperative Sector
viii. Formal and Informal Sector
ix. Social and Rental Housing
x. Land Lease and Land Grabbing


LECTURE NO. 3: TRENDS IN URBAN GROWTH

1. What is Urban Growth and Urban Sprawl?
2. Define the process of urban growth and explain the trends in urban growth
3. Narrate your understanding regarding Metropolitan Cities, Mega Cities, and Small and Intermediate Cities.

4. Define and explain the following
i. Low – Density Continuous Development Pattern
ii. Leapfrog Development Pattern
iii. Ribbon Development Pattern
iv. Cellular Growth
v. Linear City.

5. Describe in details the theories and models of urban growth and city’s life cycle.
6. In your own words write down the details of Concentric Zones Theory, Axial Development Theory, Sector Development Theory and Multiple Nuclei Development Theory.

7. Delineate a definition and description to following terms:
i. Eopolis
ii. Polis
iii. Metropolis
iv. Megalopolis
v. Tyranopolis
vi. Necropolis
vii. Infantile
viii. Juvenile
ix. Mature
x. Senile

8. Delineate the theories of Lewis Mumford and Griffith Taylor about city’s life cycle.
9. Write a critique on Global Urban Population in Developed and Developing Countries.
10. Why is the urban population increasing so fast around the globe?
11. What are the problems and issues associated with rapid urban growth?
12. In your opinion what are the major aspects of urban growth and how the process of urban planning works? Narrate your answer by citing a suitable example of a city from the local or global context.


LECTURE NO. 4: OBJECTIVES OF SOUND PLANNING

1. Explain the phrase ‘Sound Planning’ and narrate your opinion regarding ‘Objectives of Sound Planning.
2. How do we develop the goals and objectives for a city?
3. In your opinion how do we formulate the objectives of sound planning for Karachi?



LECTURE NO. 05: MODERN PLANNING IN PAKISTAN AND ABROAD

1. Delineate and describe the concepts of Modern, Modernity, Modernism and Modern Planning.

2. Write short notes on:
i. Authoritarian Planning
ii. Utilitarian Planning
iii. Romantic Planning
iv. Utopian Planning
v. Technocratic Planning
vi. Technocratic Utopia
vii. Organic Planning
viii. Post Modern Planning
ix. Sustainable Planning
x. Smart Planning

3. Write an article about Modern Planning in Pakistan and abroad.


LECTURE NO. 06: INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR TOWN PLANNING

1. What kind of information required for conducting a town planning exercise?
2. What is the significance of information for town planning?
3. What nature of information required for Landuse Planning, Economic Development and Environmental Quality in a city?



LECTURE NO. 07: MAPS

1. What is the significance of ‘Maps’ in town planning?
2. How many types of maps are required for planning and development of urban areas?
3. Write an essay about ‘Scales of Maps’.
4. Write an inventory and format of maps required for preparation of a Master Plan, Zonal Plan and Area Plan.



LECTURE NO. 08: NATURAL RESOURCES

1. What is meant by ‘Natural Resources’?
2. How do we classify ‘Economic Resources’?
3. Narrate the relation between natural resources and town planning.

4. Decode and define the following:
i. IEE
ii. EIA
iii. SIA
iv. LVIA


LECTURE NO. 09: ECONOMIC RESOURCES

1. What is meant by ‘Economic Resources’?
2. How do we classify ‘Economic Resources’?
3. Narrate the relation between economic resources and town planning.
4. What is economics and urban economics?

5. Discuss and deliberate on the following:
i. Market forces in the development of cities
ii. Land use within cities and metropolitan areas
iii. Economic policy in urban areas
iv. Urban transportation and urban economics
v. Housing and public policy
vi. Government expenditures and taxes in urban economics
vii. Natural, human and capital resources
viii. Goods and services
ix. Urban problems
x. Local government and town planning


LECTURE NO. 10: LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS

1. What is a Law?
2. What is an Administration?
3. What is Public Administration?
4. What are Urban Problems?

5. Discuss and deliberate on the following urban problems:
i. Unemployment
ii. Inappropriate solid waste management
iii. Urban poverty
iv. Inadequate housing stock
v. Inadequate water/sanitation facilities
vi. Inadequate public transportation
vii. Traffic congestion
viii. Inadequate health & education services
ix. Urban violence/crime/personal safety
x. Discrimination (women. ethnic, poor)

6. Discuss and deliberate on the urban problems of:
i. United States & Latin America
ii. Europe
iii. Africa
iv. Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East
v. Asia and Pacific
7. Discuss and deliberate on the urban problems of Karachi?


LECTURE NO. 11: CIVIC SURVEY

1. Describe in details the types of surveys and significance of survey and mapping techniques in any town planning exercise.
2. What is meant by Civic survey or Socio-Economic survey? Discuss.
3. Develop a sample Performa for socioeconomic survey.
4. Discuss in details the description of Survey and Mapping by G.K. Hiraskar and John Ratcliff.


LECTURE NO. 12: URBAN ECOLOGY

1. What is meant by the phrase urban ecology? Elaborate with suitable examples.
2. What is the significance of urban ecology? Discuss by citing suitable examples.



LECTURE NO. 13: NEED AND SCOPE OF COMPREHENSIVE PLAN

1. Describe in details the need and scope of comprehensive plan.

2. Write short notes on:
i. Town planning controls
ii. Subdivision regulations
iii. Building and housing codes
iv. Social, economic, and environmental policy
v. The future of cities and town planning


LECTURE NO. 14 and 15: PHASES OF PLANNING & PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING

1. Describe in details the phases of planning and principles of planning.
2. Explain in detail the principles of panning that helps a town planner in decision making for planning a city.
3. Develop a hierarchy or phases though which town planning is carried out in an appropriate manner.
4. A planner can be defined as “An artist of rationality with reference to human activity” Explain this statement with suitable examples.
5. Narrate the seven steps of planning process.
6. Describe in details the principles of planning as described by ‘G. K Hiraskar’ and ‘Abir Bandy Opadhyay’ in their books on town planning.

7. Elucidate the following four principles of town planning:
i. Health of Citizens
ii. Physical, Social and Economic Convenience
iii. Aesthetics and Beauty
iv. Safety and Security
8. “The planners established the principles of planning from four major directions i.e. through quantitative techniques, aesthetic considerations, political behavioral imperatives and social welfare concerns.” Explain.

9. Explain the details of seven phases of planning as given below:
i. Preliminary Study (Contextual Appraisal).
ii. Formulation of Goals (Public Participation / Views of People).
iii. Identification of Objectives (Public Demand & Details of Policy & Plan).
iv. Preparation of Alternative Strategies (Various Courses of Actions).
v. Evaluation (Strategy for enforcement by Considering the Physical, Social, economic & Political Realities).
vi. Implementation (Public Private Partnerships, Regulation and Control over Development).
vii. Monitoring & Review (Redefining Goals & Objectives with Changing Socio-Political Situations).

10. Explicate town planning by means of at least seven phases of planning and seven principles of planning.


LECTURE NO. 16, 17, 18 and 19: COMMUNICATION (ROADS, RAILWAYS, AIRPORTS AND HARBORS)

1. Write a comprehensive essay about ‘Communication’ i.e. roads, railways, airways and waterways.
2. “Cities are the engines of our civilization, where specialized services are available for our living, working and recreation. No city can be termed as a good city which does not possess efficient communication system” Explain these statements.
3. Explain the phrase communication with reference to transportation.
4. Explain the function, necessity and classification of roads and road network within an urban context.
5. Write an essay about metropolitan railways.
6. Explicate in details the definition, meaning, types and classification of metropolitan railways and enlighten upon modern developments in urban rail transport.

7. Write short notes on following communication means:
i. Local Road, District Roads, State Highways and National Highway
ii. Ring road, Diagonal road, Radial road and Circular road
iii. Residential road, Commercial road, Avenue, Promenade and Boulevard
iv. Arterial roads, Sub-arterial roads, Local roads, bypass roads, Outer & Inner Ring roads, Express ways and free ways.
v. Subways, Underground Street Cars, Metro, Metropolitano, U. Bahn, and S. Bahn Systems

8. Inscribe an article about Airways and Air Transport.
9. Write an article on Airport and its development in an urban context.
10. Elucidate the function, location, planning and design of Airport facilities in an urban context.
11. Write an essay about water ways, sea ports, harbors and docks.
12. Explicate in details the definition, need, impacts, efficiency, type and classification of water ways, sea ports, harbors & docks.
13. Describe in details the natural, functional and location classification of sea ports and harbor facilities.

14. Write short notes with suitable examples about the types of harbors given below:
i. Natural and Semi-Natural Harbor
ii. Artificial Harbor
iii. Commercial Harbor
iv. Military Harbor
v. Harbor of Refuge

15. Inscribe an essay about waterways and water transport.
16. Write an article on planning & design of sea ports, harbors and docks and dockyards.
17. Elucidate the significance of developing waterways, sea ports, harbors, docks and dockyards in an urban context.
18. Discuss in details the sea ports harbors, docks and dockyards development in the context of Karachi.
19. Draw a typical layout of a natural and an artificial harbor, label them and explain.


LECTURE NO. 20: STREET TRAFFIC AND DESIGN

1. Write a comprehensive essay about ‘Street Traffic and Design’.
2. Elucidate the definition, types, function, location, planning and design of a street and its role in built environment.

3. Write short notes on:
i. Role of street in the built environment
ii. Circulation within streets
iii. Vehicular traffic in streets
iv. Parking for vehicles in streets
v. Pedestrian traffic in streets
vi. Vehicular amenities in streets
vii. Interaction in streets
viii. Identity of streets
ix. Streets as distinct from other spaces
x. Nomenclature of streets


LECTURE NO. 21: URBAN ZONING & LAND USE CONTROL

1. Write an all-inclusive essay about ‘Urban Zoning and Land Use Control’.
2. Compare the definitions of ‘Urban Zoning and Land Use Control’ as defined by G. K. Hiraskar in his book “Fundamentals of Town Planning” and W.PAUL Farmer and Julie A. Gibb in the book “Introduction to Urban Planning”.
3. Elucidate the phrase “Urban Zoning and Land Use Control’ and explain its objectives, purpose, scope, need and significance.
4. What is meant by ‘Land Use Control’ and how it is exercised by the institutions in an urban context?
5. Narrate the relation between Land Use and Environment.
6. Explicate in details the origin and history of zoning in United States of America and United Kingdom.
7. Write a brief note on zoning types i.e. euclidean, performance based, incentive based and form based.
8. The zoning is classified in three categories i.e. use zoning, height zoning and density zoning. Explain with suitable examples and sketches.

9. Write short notes on:
i. Use Zoning
ii. Height Zoning
iii. Density Zoning
iv. Residential Zone
v. Commercial Zone
vi. Industrial Zone
vii. Civic Zone
viii. Institutional Zone
ix. Recreational Zone
x. Zoning Powers

10. Mark and make clear the zoning and landuse classification on given map of a town with appropriate colour coding.


LECTURE NO. 22: PARKS AND RECREATION FACILITIES

1. Write an all-inclusive essay about ‘Parks and Recreation Facilities’.
2. Government-owned or operated parks are of three types i.e. National Park, Sub National Parks and Urban Parks. Explain with suitable examples.
3. Define recreation and its significance in an urban context?
4. Elucidate the popular types of recreational activities exists in various urban contexts around the globe.
5. Write an article on provision of parks and recreational facilities in major urban centers of Pakistan.


LECTURE NO. 23: LOCATION OF PUBLIC AND SEMI-PUBLIC BUILDINGS, CIVIC CENTERS, COMMERCIAL CENTERS, LOCAL SHOPPING CENTERS, PUBLIC SCHOOLS

1. What is meant by location? Explain location theory.
2. Write an all-inclusive essay about location of public and semi-public buildings, civic centers, commercial centers, local shopping centers and public schools.

3. In town planning what are the major factors involved while making decisions about location of:

i. Public and Semi-Public Buildings
ii. Civic Centers
iii. Local Shopping Centers and
iv. Public Schools


LECTURE NO. 24: LOCATION OF INDUSTRY & RESIDENTIAL AREAS

1. Write an all-inclusive essay about location of ‘Industry and Residential areas’.
2. In town planning what are the major aspects which needs to be considered while making decision about location of ‘Industry and Residential areas’.
3. What are the reasons for the location of a particular business or industry in a specific area?
4. Why people decide about living in a particular housing scheme at a particular location whereas; different types of residences available at variety of locations within city?
5. How will you decide about the location of your workplace and residence?
6. How do people decide about locating their business and industry within a city?
7. Elucidate the physical, human and economic factors that help in making decisions about locating an industry, business or a residential area.

8. Define the significance of following contributing factors for locating an industry or business within a city.
i. Nearness to power
ii. Nearness to market
iii. Nearness to a supply of raw materials
iv. Nearness to a supply of labour
v. Proximity of other businesses– external economies of scale
vi. The reputation of an area
vii. Transport and communication services
viii. Incentives
ix. Competition
x. Opportunities for expansion


LECTURE NO. 25: LAYOUT OF STREET, ROAD CROSSING & LIGHTING

1. Write an all-inclusive essay about ‘Layout of Street, Road Crossing and Lighting’.
2. Define and explain the terms ‘Street and Street Furniture’.

3. Elucidate the following terms with suitable sketches:
i. Lane
ii. Track
iii. Street
iv. Avenue
v. Pathway
vi. Alleyway
vii. Walkway
viii. Boulevard
ix. Thoroughfare
x. Cul–de–sac

4. Explicate the phrase ‘Traffic Calming’ and elucidate the practical engineering measures employed for it.
5. Explain the phrase ‘Road Crossing’ and enlighten its characteristics.
6. Elucidate the methods of ‘Street Lighting’ with suitable sketches.


LECTURE NO. 26: COMMUNITY PLANNING

1. What is ‘Community Planning’? Write at least 10 benefits of ‘Community Planning’.
2. How do we start with community planning? Write at least 8 steps’ approach adopted for ‘Community Planning’.
3. Write an all-inclusive essay about ‘Principles of Community Planning’.
4. Write at least 50 ‘Principles of Community Planning’.



LECTURE NO: 27: SUBURBAN DEVELOPMENT

1. Define the meaning, etymology and usage of the term ‘suburb’
2. Explain the process of suburban growth in United States of America and United Kingdom?
3. Why do suburbs developes? Discuss.
4. Write an essay about suburbs, suburbanisation and suburban development in a global context
5. Describe the following terms and concepts:
i. Boomburbs
ii. Commuter town
iii. Exurbs
iv. Edge city
v. Ethnoburb
vi. Inner suburbs
vii. Penurbia
viii. Streetcar suburb
ix. Urban rural fringe
x. Urban sprawl.


LECTURE NO. 28 and 29: SLUM AREAS AND THEIR UPGRADING

1. Write an all-inclusive essay about ‘Slum Areas and their Upgrading’ around the globe.
2. Clearly establish the definition and background of ‘Slum Areas and Squatter Settlements’.
3. Differentiate between the phrases ‘Slum Areas and Squatter Settlements’.
4. Elaborate the definitions of ‘Slum Areas and Squatter Settlements’.
5. Why squatter settlements emerge and formed in a city and what are its socioeconomic and physical implications on city and city dwellers.
6. Write a comprehensive article about development of squatter settlements in Pakistan and in Karachi.
7. What is meant by “Informal / Illegal Land subdivisions”? What are its actors and processes?
8. Put in writing a wide-ranging critique about development of slums in India.
9. Write at least eight main causes for the formation of slums and seven major effects of slums on town life.
10. What is meant by ‘Slum Clearance’? What are the two major processes of ‘Slum Clearance’? Elaborate.


FINAL NOTE:

The course is now complete all the review questions developed up till now are given for your practice.

Do study hard and BEST OF LUCK FOR YOUR EXAMS.

13 comments:

  1. hello,
    I m a student of Architecture.
    And while finding aswers to a few quests...I came across this blog of yours...
    but, how could u have a display picture like that...with a cigarette...
    This is shameful...atleast for a blog which is meant for educational purposes.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. not a cigarette lol. its a cup of tea

      Delete
  2. Dear Richa Sharma
    So nice of you to identify that you did not liked my picture and you feel its shameful. I am so glad that you noticed and reacted with such strong words. Here I like to tell you that its also shameful that a person hide its identity and wrong doings and only portray the good things about him. I am truthful to myself as well as my readers. Whereas there is no profile details who you are? I think being truthful is more important than anything. Smoking cigarette is my reality and I don't hide anything. Please do not stone anyone when you are living in house of glass. You feel it shameful to see a picture with cigarette. I feel shameful that a person manipulate people by only telling good things and hiding bad things about him or her.
    Thank you for your feed back.

    ReplyDelete
  3. hello~welcome my world~<. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    ReplyDelete
  4. sir how to get these notes kindly provide me the link

    ReplyDelete
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    Thank you so much for this wonderful article really!
    If someone want to read more about that city planning I think this is the right place for you!

    ReplyDelete
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